Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)


          Mechanism of the human mind:

id, ego, superego


libido: “The Force”

Oedipus complex



manifest content

latent content


          Michel Foucault: History of Sexuality






Carl Gustav JUNG (1875-1961)

















           Aryan religious revival: Pagan Symbolism

                   1897 Sexualreligion                                



Richard Noll: The Jung Cult, The Aryan Christ










          Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)



Claude Monet (1840-1926)

          Pierre Renoir (1841-1919)


          Edward Munch “Scream” (1863-1944)

          Vaslav Nijinsky (1890-1950)



Henri Matisse (1869-1954):



Pablo Picasso

Georges Braque





























          Pablo Picasso “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”                                         Vaslav Nijinsky


Art Nouveau            AVANT-GARDE


Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)

James Joyce (1882-1941)


dAdaIsM                    Futuristm











1883: Fabian Society

Fabius Cunctator


1906: Labor Party



Bismarck’s Kulturkampf 1871-87



Education and Imperialism






















“Hausmannization” of Paris

Georges Eugène Hausmann (1809-1891)



Parisian apartment building à la Hausmann




Vienna: Ringstrasse









22nd Dec., 1900. The old century is very nearly out, and leaves the world in a pretty pass, and the British Empire is playing the devil in it as never an empire before on so large a scale. We may live to see its fall. All the nations of Europe are making the same hell upon earth in China, massacring and pillaging and raping in the captured cities as outrageously as in the Middle Ages. The Emperor of Germany gives the word for slaughter and the Pope looks on and approves. In South Africa our troops are burning farms under Kitchener's command, and the Queen and the two houses of Parliament, and the bench of bishops thank God publicly and vote money for the work. The Americans are spending fifty millions a year on slaughtering the Filipinos; the King of the Belgians has invested his whole fortune on the Congo, where he is brutalizing the Negroes to fill his pockets. The French and Italians for the moment are playing a less prominent part in the slaughter, but their inactivity grieves them. The whole white race is reveling openly in violence, as though it had never pretended to be Christian. God's equal curse be on them all! So ends the famous nineteenth century into which we were so proud to have been born.

31st Dec., 1900. I bid good-bye to the old century, may it rest in peace as it has lived in war. Of the new century I prophesy nothing except that it will see the decline of the British Empire. Other worse empires will rise perhaps in its place, but I shall not live to see the day. It all seems a very little matter here in Egypt, with the pyramids watching us as they watched Joseph, when, as a young man four thousand years ago, perhaps in this very garden, he walked and gazed at the sunset behind them, wondering about the future just as I did this evening. And so, poor wicked nineteenth century, farewell!


Wilfrid Scraven Blunt (1840-1922)







imperium: sway; dominion; authority; empire


Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.):


His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono:

imperium sine fine dedi.


For these I set no limits, world or time,

But make the gift of empire without end.

(Aeneid I.278-79, Robert Fitzgerald’s translation)







Charlemagne: Crowned Emperor Christmas Day 800

                                                CHRISTIAN EMPIRE




► 1. 15th — 18th century

► 2. 1870s — WW1: “new imperialism”

► 3. 1930s — present










          1. 16th century until 1783

                             1.5. 1783-1870s: FREE MARKET phase

                             2. 1870s until 1914: aggressive imperial policy

3. After WWII



                     Africa: 1880s                                                     Africa: 1914





John A. Hobson  (1858-1940) Imperialism, 1902:

It is open to Imperialists to argue thus: "We must have markets for our growing manufactures, we must have new outlets for the investment of our surplus capital and for the energies of the adventurous surplus of our population: such expansion is a necessity of life to a nation with our great and growing powers of production. An ever larger share of our population is devoted to the manufactures and commerce of towns, and is thus dependent for life and work upon food and raw materials from foreign lands. In order to buy and pay for these things we must sell our goods abroad. During the first three­ quarters of the nineteenth century we could do so without difficulty by a natural expansion of commerce with continental nations and our colonies, all of which were far behind us in the main arts of manufacture and the carrying trades. So long as England held a virtual monopoly of the world markets for certain important classes of manufactured goods, Imperialism was unnecessary.

After 1870 this manufacturing and trading supremacy was greatly impaired: other nations, especially Germany, the United States, and Belgium, advanced with great rapidity, and while they have not crushed or even stayed the increase of our external trade, their competition made it more and more difficult to dispose of the full surplus of our manufactures at a profit. The encroachments made by these nations upon our old markets, even in our own possessions, made it most urgent that we should take energetic means to secure new markets. These new markets had to lie in hitherto undeveloped countries, chiefly in the tropics, where vast populations lived capable of growing economic needs which our manufacturers and merchants could supply. Our rivals were seizing and annexing territories for similar purposes, and when they had annexed them closed them to our trade. The diplomacy and the arms of Great Britain had to be used in order to compel the owners of the new markets to deal with us: and experience showed that the safest means of securing and developing such markets is by establishing 'protectorates' or by annexation.”









Rudyard Kipling, 1899


Take up the White Man's burden--
Send forth the best ye breed--
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild--
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.

Take up the White Man's burden--
In patience to abide,
To veil the threat of terror
And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple,
An hundred times made plain
To seek another's profit,
And work another's gain.

Take up the White Man's burden--
The savage wars of peace--
Fill full the mouth of Famine
And bid the sickness cease;
And when your goal is nearest
The end for others sought,
Watch sloth and heathen Folly
Bring all your hopes to nought.
















































Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis)



1839: Charles Goodyear


1888: John Boyd Dunlop

                   inflatable tire













Gatling gun (predecessor of Maxim)