SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA

 

 

 

 

Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904)

 

International Association of Congo (after 1885: Congo Free State)

 

 

 

“one piece of cloth per month to each of the undersigned chiefs, besides present of cloth in hand, they promised to freely of their own accord, for themselves and their heirs and successors for ever...give up to the said Association the sovereignty and all sovereign and governing rights to all their territories...and to assist by labour or otherwise, any works, improvements or expeditions which the said Association shall cause at any time to be carried out in any part of these territories... All roads and waterways running through this country, the right of collecting tolls on the same, and all game, fishing, mining and forest rights, are to be the absolute property of the said Association.”

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


NEW IMPERIALISM AND BRITAIN

 

British East India Company

          by 1858: control of India

         

1869 Suez Canal opened: 101 miles long

          London-Yokohama at 20 knots

(23mph)

► around Cape Good Hope: 14,500 nautical miles

► through Suez Canal: 11,000 nautical miles (12,656 miles)    (7 days less)

 

1875: British majority in Canal Company

 

1882: Great Britain controls Egypt

 

 
 

                   Suez Canal Opening, 1869

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Port of Canton

 

 

                             British destroying Chinese Junks

 

 

CHINA

          Opium Wars

                   First Opium War 1839-42 (Britain)

                             Treaty of Nanking:

Hong Kong to Britain

                   Second Opium War 1856-60

(France, Britain)

 

          TREATY PORTS

 

http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/ChinaDragon/opiumwar.html

 

 
 

 


         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

quinine, machine guns, and heroes:         CECIL RHODES (1853-1902)

 

“Remember that you are an Englishman, and have consequently won first prize in the lottery of life.”

“I have found out one thing and that is, if you have an idea, and it is a good idea, if you only stick to it you will come out all right.”

         

         

De Beers (incorporated 1888)

 

Rhodesia

 

Boers / Afrikaner in Transvaal

South African War / Boer War: 1899-1902

                   concentration camps

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Menschenrassen                                                    Geopolitics of Imperialism

Ethnography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Great Britain

France

Belgium

Netherlands

Germany

Area in Square Miles

94,000

212,600

11,800

13,200

210,000

Population

45,500,100

42,000,000

8,300,000

8.500,000

67,500,000

Area of Colonies

13,100,000

4,300,000

940,000

790,000

1,100,000

Population of Colonies

470,000,000

65,000,000

13,000,000

66,000,000

13,000,000

 

                   Interesting theories:

                             Schumpeter, Joseph Alois (1883-1950)

                                      Sociology of Imperialism

                             Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (1870-1924)

                                      Imperialism

                  

                   J. A. Hobson, Imperialism, 1938

                   A. P. Thornton, Imperialism in the Twentieth Century, 1977

                   Wolfgang Mommsen, Theories of Imperialism, 1979

                   Harvey, David, The New Imperialism, 2003 (America definitely IS an empire, and not necessarily a benign one)

 

 

 

 

Fin de siècle

 

 “History,” Stephen said, “is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake”

Stephen Daedalus in James Joyce’s Ulysses (Paris, 1922)

 

Friedrich Nietzsche

Oswald Spengler (1880-1936): The Decline of the West

 

 

Robert Musil (1880-1942): The Man Without Qualities

Franz Kafka (1883-1924): Metamorphosis, The Castle, The Trial

Marcel Proust (1871-1922): Remembrance of Things Past

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Willy-Nicky letters http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/willnick/wnmaina.htm

 

Berlin Conference (1884-85)

 

1882 Triple Alliance (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy)

1893-1907 Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia)

 

Schlieffen Plan

Count Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE: sick man of Europe                                AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

 

 

 

PANSLAVISM

         

SERBIA

          Balkan Wars 1912-13

 

Bosnia-Herzegovina

1908: annexed by Austria

 

 

                                      “ujedinjenje ili smrt” (“union or death” a.k.a. BLACK HAND)

 

 

 

 

Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1963-1914)

Sarajevo 28 JUNE, 1914

                   Gavrilo Princip

 

 

 

ULTIMATUM

          http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/austro-hungarian-ultimatum.html

          Serbia blamed for tolerating Anti-Austrian terrorists

          DEMANDS

                   - censor Anti-Austrian sentiments

                   - dismiss Anti-Austrian officials and teachers

                   - allow for Austrian officials to investigate the matter in Serbia

         

 

 

WAR: 28 July 1914

Excellent document site: http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914.html

 

 

 

THE GREAT WAR

 

 

 

 

THE GREAT DISAPPOINTMENT

 

 

 

The forests of Ardennes

 

 

WAR OF ATTRITION

 

Allies”: Britain, France, US, Russia, Italy

Central Powers

 

Marne: Fall 1914

          city of Paris saved

 

          Regiment in which Adolf Hitler served (near Ypres)

went from 3500 to 600 men (83% loss) in 4 days

 

 

 

Verdun: throughout 1916

          c. 1 million casualties

 

          The fortress of Verdun

 

Battle of the Somme:

1. July 1916: c. 110,000 allies attacked > c. 50,000 came back

 

Paschendaele: August-November 1917

 

Gallipoli: February 1914-January 1915

 

March 1917: Russia

February 1917: Zimmerman telegram

          April 2, 1917: US enters the war

 

 

 

 

 

11 November, 1918: armistice

 

AMIENS

 

YPRES

 

Pictures of the Great War:

            http://www.greatwar.nl/frames/default-color1.html

 

 

 

 

 

PARIS PEACE TREATIES

 

Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)

peace without victory

League of Nations

 

 

GERMANY

 

- Alsace-Lorraine

- Colonies

- Poland’s sea-corridor

- German army limited to 100,000 men

- Demilitarized zone

- Reparation: USD 33 billion

          (c.280 billion today)

- War guilt

 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

World War I internet archive  http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/

J.M. Keynes’ opinion of the harsh reparation settlement: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1920keynes.html