The divisions of Poland

1772, 1793, 1795

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

die Aufklärung; siècle les lumières

 

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

1784: “Was ist Aufklärung?” (Berlinische Monatschrift)

“Enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage (minority/immaturity). Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Sapere aude! “Dare to know! Dare to use your reason!” — that is the motto of enlightenment.

          Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a portion of mankind, after nature has long since discharged them from external direction, nevertheless remains under lifelong tutelage, and why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as their guardians. It is so easy not to be of age. If I have a book which understands for me, a pastor who has a conscience for me, a physician who decides my diet, and so forth, I need not trouble myself. I need not think, if I can only pay - others will easily undertake the irksome work for me.”

 

 
 


   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Full text of the essay: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/kant-whatis.html

          Cf. Michel Foucault’s essay “What is Enlightenment” http://courses.essex.ac.uk/cs/cs101/foucault.htm

 

REASON

            credo ut intelligam

 

EXPERIENCE and EXPERIMENT

            Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

 

1620: Francis Bacon

1628: William Harvey

1687: Isaac Newton, Principia

           

            1751-72: Diderot and D’Alembert: Encyclopédie

1776: Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline

 and Fall of the Roman Empire         

            1776: Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations

 

DEISM

 

FREEDOM

 

ADVANCEMENT

Marquis de Condorcet, Sketch for a Historical

            Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/condorcet-progress.html

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Brothers Montgolfier

21 November 1783

 

 

 

 

 

Madame Geoffrin’s Salon, 1755

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the Enlightenment philosophes

 

 

Montesquieu 1689-1755

Voltaire 1694-1778

Hume, David 1711-1776

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 1712-1778

Diderot, Denis 1713-1784

d’Alembert, Jean de Rond 1717-1783

Condorcet 1743-1794

 

 

 

 

Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)

Sketch of a historical picture of the progress of the human mind

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/condorcet-progress.html

 

 

 

 

 (1751-1772) Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers

Denis Diderot,  Jean de Rond d’Alembert

 

 

Ephraim Chamber’s Cyclopaedia.

enkuklios paideia

1620 New Organon Francis Bacon

 

http://www.hti.umich.edu/d/did/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778

 

 

“Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains”

 

The Social Contract

“general will

 

 

Émile

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, (1746-1827)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

François-Marie Arouet: Voltaire (1694-1778)

 

Candide, 1759

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646-1716)

 

          Lisbon earthquake:

                   An eyewitness account by Rev. Charles Davy

 

 

Catherine II to Voltaire, on the role of enlightened thinkers: “combat the enemies of mankind: superstition, fanaticism, ignorance, quibbling, evil judges, and the powers that rest in their hands

 

 

 

 

 

THE LEGACY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

 

► MODERN SCIENCE

► DEISM

► LITERACY

                   Journal de Paris 1771

The Times 1785 (circulation 5000 by 1815 >> within 40 years: 50,000 issues)

► SOCIAL THEORY and ACTIVISM

          “general will”

          “social contract”

 

Carl Becker: The Heavenly City of Eighteenth-Century Philosophers 1932

Theodor Adorno: Dialectic of Enlightenment 1947

Peter Gay: The Enlightenment 1995

Melton, James van Horn: The Rise of Public in Enlightenment Europe 2001

 

Edward Wilson: Consilience 2003

     I believe that the Enlightenment thinkers of the 17th and 18th centuries got it mostly right the first time...”

 

“... all tangible phenomena, from the birth of stars to the workings of social institutions, are based on material processes that are ultimately reducible, however long and tortuous the sequences, to the laws of physics."

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Turgot’s reforms

1775: “Flour War” in France

Pugachev revolt 1773-74

 

 

 

FRANCE DURING THE LAST YEARS OF THE

ancien régime

   

Louis XVI (1754-1793)                              Marie-Antoinette (1755-1793)

 

 

 

 

Abbé de Sieyés: (1748-1836) “What is the third estate?”

 

          Estates General

Cahiers des doléances