Abbé de Sieyés: (1748-1836) “What is the third estate?”


          Estates General

Cahiers des doléances


June 17:  National Assembly

June 20: Tennis Court Oath



                    GREAT FEAR OF JULY 1789




14 July Storming of the Bastille



Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834)




August 23, 1789:

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen


1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.

2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.

4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.

5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.

6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.


9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by law.


          (The Avalon Project



Olympie de Gouges (1748-1793): Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen






Flight to Varennes: June 1791


September 1791: Legislative Assembly





“Breton club”


                                       1790: over 150 clubs

                                      1793: About 6000 clubs

                                                over 500,000 members


                             Girondins Gironde

                             Montagnarts “the Mountain”




Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)             Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794)



Talleyrand (1754-1838)





Tuilleries, 10 August 1792



22 September 1792: the First Republic


National Convention





LOUIS XVI January 21, 1793                                Joseph Ignace Guillotin






Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)

                                                Committee of Public Safety





Anatole France (1844-1924): The Gods Will Have Blood (1912)



Olympie de Gouges (1748-1793)

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)

Condorcet (1743-1794)








Vendée Rebellion 1793






Council of 500

Council of the Ancients




Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)



1 August 1798: Abú Qír bay (Battle of the Nile)

Horatio Nelson (1758-1805)



Coup of 18 Brumaire 1799 year 8:

November 9 1799



1801 Concordat with Rome

Pius VII (pope 1800-1823)



1806 Confederation of the Rhine




Trafalgar 1805


1812 Russian Campaign


1813 near Leipzig: battle of the nations


1814 Elba




1815 “hundred days”

June 18, 1815: Waterloo


St Helen’s








Code Napoleon / Civil Code 1804


                                       LEARNING and SCIENCE



1799 Rosetta Stone

Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205-180 b.c)


Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832)



1828 Description of Egypt