TELEOLOGY

telos=goal; logos=word/discourse

 

 

St Augustine (354-430) City of God

 

 

Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886)

“wie es eigentlich gewesen ist”

         

 

Postmodernity

PLURALISM

 

 

Century: centum=100

 

Dionysius Exiguus

753 ab urbe condita

 

 

 

Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715)

“l’état, c’est moi”

 

 

 

 

          Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), Leviathan

 

 

Frederick II (the Great)of Prussia (1712-1786)

                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treaties of Utrecht 1713-14

War of Spanish Succession

 

Treaty of Nystad 1721

Great Northern War

 

 

 

Great Britain

          1707 Union with Scotland

France

Prussia

Russia

 

 

  

Peter the Great (1682-1725)

 

Archangelsk

St Petersburg 1703

 

 

 

Catherine the Great (1729-1796; ruled 1762-96)

 

Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Maria Theresa (1717-1780, ruled from 1740)

 

Pragmatic Sanction of 1713

 

Frederick II “The Great” (Ruled 1740-86)

 

Silesia

 

 

 

 

The divisions of Poland

 

 

 

MERCANTILISM

 

Thomas Mun (1571-1641)

ENGLAND’S TREASURE BY FOREIGN TRADE

 

English East India Company

 

 

Adam Smith (1723-1790) THE WEALTH OF NATIONS

laissez-faire

 

 

 

 

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

 

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

“Was ist Aufklärung?” 1784

 

 

Enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage (minority). Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Sapere aude! “Dare to know! Dare to use your reason!” — that is the motto of enlightenment.

          Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a portion of mankind, after nature has long since discharged them from external direction, nevertheless remains under lifelong tutelage, and why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as their guardians. It is so easy not to be of age. If I have a book which understands for me, a pastor who has a conscience for me, a physician who decides my diet, and so forth, I need not trouble myself. I need not think, if I can only pay - others will easily undertake the irksome work for me.

 

 

 

REASON

 

EXPERIENCE and EXPERIMENT

 

DEISM

 

FREEDOM

 

ADVANCEMENT

 

 

 

Brothers Montgolfier

21 November 1783

 

 

 

Madame Geoffrin’s Salon, 1755

 

 

 

the Enlightenment philosophes

 

 

Montesquieu 1689-1755

Voltaire 1694-1778

Hume, David 1711-1776

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 1712-1778

Diderot, Denis 1713-1784

d’Alembert, Jean de Rond 1717-1783

Condorcet 1743-1794