1. Voltaire is best known for his extensive commentaries on the Bible, which earned him the lasting support of the papacy.

 

2. Adam Smith, a supporter of mercantilist economic theory, was a long-time administrator in the successful British East India Company.

 

3. Widespread popular nationalism in Poland prevented Russia, Austria, and Prussia from completely dismembering Poland in the 18th century.

 

4. Maria Theresa of Austria had friendly relations with Frederick the Great of Prussia, who belonged among the few European monarchs supportive of Maria’s succession in 1740.

 

 

 

 

 

ROMANTICISM

roman

 

- spontaneity, simplicity, honesty

          William Wordsworth (1770-1850) Lyrical Ballads

- emotions and intuition

          Weltschmerz

 

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

          “Kubla Khan”

Thomas De Quincey (1785-1859)

Confessions of an English Opium Eater

- nature

- noble savage

- individual

- romantic hero

          Napoleon

George Gordon Byron (1788-1824)

Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837)

          Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

                    Faust

                   Sorrows of Young Werther

Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

- interest in the past

- nationalism and romanticism       

 

 

NEUSCHWANSTEIN 1869-

Ludwig II of Bavaria (1864-86)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

                                                Émile

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

                                                Critique of Pure Reason.

 

 

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)

                                       Faust

                                      Sorrows of Young Werther

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

 Lyrical Ballads written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

Thomas De Quincey (1785-1859)

                   Confessions of an English Opium Eater

George Gordon Byron (1788-1824)

                                                Childe-Harold’s Pilgrimage

Mary Shelley (1797-1851)

                                                Frankenstein.

Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837)

Victor Hugo (French 1802-1885)

                                                Les Misérables, Hunchback of Notre Dame, etc.

 

 

 

Ludwig von Beethoven (German, 1770-1827)

Franz Liszt (Hungarian, 1811-1886)

Richard Wagner (German) (1813-1883)

Tchaikovsky (Russian,1840-1893)

Giuseppe Verdi (Italian, 1813-1901)

Strauss, Richard (German, 1864-1949)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                   CONSERVATISM WITH A VENGEANCE

 

Metternich (1773-1859)

Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Fürst Von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein

 

Carlsbad Decrees 1819

          assassination of August von Kotzebue

(Alexandre Dumas the elder “Karl Ludwig Sand”)

Burschenschaften

                            

 

December 1825: Decembrists: “Long live Constitution!”

          Alexander I

                   Constantine

                   Nicholas I (ruled 1825-55)

“Orthodoxy, Aristocracy, Nationalism”

 

1849: Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)

 

 

 

WARS OF INDEPENDENCE

1821 Greece

1831 Belgium  

1810 Latin America

 

 

 

FRANCE

          Charles X

          Jules de Polignac

 

1830: July Revolution: LOUIS PHILIPPE

          revolutionary tradition

          religion

          suffrage doubled (to 6% of population)

          Enrichissez-vous!

 

 

 

 

1845-46: potato crisis

          Irish famine

 

Reform banquets

 

         

 

 

 

 
 

“citizen-king” King Louis Philippe

1830-1848 July Monarchy

         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848

 

 

February 22-24, 1848

          REPUBLIC

 

          New tension:

                   Bourgeoisie vs. Workers

                        National Workshops

 

June, 1848

Louis Napoleon (1808-1873)

       1852-1870 Emperor Louis Napoleon III

 

          Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte

 

 

 

 

“Victor Hugo and Emile de Girardin Elevating Louis Napoleon”

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


AUSTRIA

                   Hungarians / Magyars

Louis Kossuth (1802-94)

March 1848

 

 

 

 

 

Vienna, 1848

 

Franz Josef (1848-1916)

 

 

 

 

 

 

GERMAN STATES

Frankfurt Assembly May 1848

 

 

 

 

                            

 

Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901)

 

 

Peterloo Massacre 1819

(St Peter’s fields in Manchester)

 

1832 REFORM ACT

                                      rotten boroughs

 

Manchester (250,000 by 1850)            0

London (over 2 mil. by 1850)              4

Cornwall (192,000)                             44

 

 

1830s: Chartist Movement

 

          1943 Edwin Chadwick

Report on an Enquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain.  

1845 Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels

Condition of the Working Class in England

                            

 

LIBERALISM

 

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

 

                                                          utilitarianism

                                                          liberalism

 

1859 On Liberty

 

 

 

 

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)                                   Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527)

The Prince

 

REALPOLITIK

 

Bismarck: “The great questions of the time are not decided by speeches and majority decisions

—that was the error of 1848 and 1849—but by iron and blood.”

 

 

demagogue

 

 

 

 

SOCIALISM

“vague, undefined, undefinable”

 

 

          Rule of St Benedict of Nursia: +/- 526

                  

 

 

 

CLUNY (founded 909-910)

 

 

 

 

 

          Thomas More (1477-1535) Utopia

                  

          Thomaso Campanella (1568-1639) City of the Sun

                  

Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)

 

Robert Owen (1771-1858)

 

 

 

 

 

New Lanark, Scotland

 

Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

The Communist Manifesto (1848)