SOCIALISM

DISTRIBUTION of wealth: COMMUNITY v. MARKET

 

Friedrich Engels: the term socialism is “vague, undefined, undefinable”

         

 

                   1. Middle Ages (symbolic dates 476-1453)

                   2. Renaissance (15th-16th centuries)

                   3. 19th century Socialism

 

                                               

1. MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN HERITAGE

communal good v. wealth/poverty

If you wish to be perfect, go and sell everything you possess and give it to the poor and come, follow me and you will have treasure in heaven [Matthew 19:21-22].

 

monasticism

Monastic Rule

of St Benedict of Nursia, c.526

 

eschatology

          “the end of days”

          apocalypticism

                   Daniel, Revelations

                   apokalyptein: to uncover

 

 
 

 

 


CLUNY (founded 909-910)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. RENAISSANCE UTOPIAS

          Reformation

         

          Thomas More (1477-1535) Utopia

                   ou-topos: “no place”

Plato (427-347), The Republic

          Thomaso Campanella (1568-1639) City of the Sun

                  

 

 

 

 

3. NINETEENTH-CENTURY SOCIALISM

 

                   ► Christian/religious socialism

Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)

François-Marie-Charles Fourier (1772–1837)

 

                   ► liberal socialism

                             Robert Owen (1771-1858)

  New Lanark, Scotland

 

► atheistic/radical socialism

Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

                                       COMMUNISM

The Communist Manifesto (1848)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CRIMEAN WAR (1853-56)

 

Charge of the Light Brigade

Balakhlava

 

         

          Victoria Cross

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

“The lady with the Lamp”

         

 

 

 

 

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY

 

1815 Confederation (reestablished in 1850).

1834 Zollverein: 18 states involved

 

 

 

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

“The great questions of the time are not decided by speeches and majority decisions—that was the error of 1848 and 1849—but by iron and blood.”

 

Junker

 

 

 

Otto von Bismarck: Realpolitik in practice

 

STEP 1: Weaken Austria

 

Seven Weeks’ War 1866

Schleswig-Holstein

 

  

1867 North German Confederation                                                          Königgrätz 1866

 

1867 Ausgleich: Austria-Hungary

 

Step 2: Provide a cause for unification

 

Franco-Prussian War 1870-71

Napoleon III

                             Emile Zola: The Debacle

                            

                             2 September 1870: Battle of Sedan

 

 

18 January 1871: WILLIAM I

28 January 1871: Paris capitulated

 

 

 

 

FACES OF NATIONALISM

 

Cultural/Ethnic Nationalism

          - linguistic, cultural unity

- ancient origins

          - imagined/real enemy

 

Political Nationalism

          - state = people/nation

          - education

          - invented nations

          - territorial challenges

 

Ideological Nationalism

          - liberty/democracy/socialism

 

Economic Nationalism

 

DIAGNOSING NATIONALISM

            - social phenomenon

          - substitute for religion

          - illusion

 
Nationalist historians/philosophers:

Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-72)

Johann Gottfried von Herder 1744-1803)

 

language: High / Low German

“national character”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. J. Hobsbawm. Nations and Nationalism since 1780.

Benedict Anderson. Imagined Communities.

Ernst Gellner. Nations and Nationalism.

Hroch, Miroslav. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe.

Greenfield, Liah. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“MUNDUS ERGO IPSE, CALAMO DEI INSCRIPTUS, LITTERA QUAEDAM EST INTELLIGENTI, repraesentans artificis potentiam, cum sapientia ejusdem et benignitate.”

                   Alexander Neckam (1157-1217)

 

St. Ambrose (339-397)

          Hexaemeron

 

James Ussher (1581-1656)

world created before Sunday October 23, 4004 B.C.

 

Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543)

 

Buffon (Georges-Louis Leclerc, Count of Buffon, 1707-1788)

“The dark abyss of time”

 

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)

          taxonomy

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

 

1831-36 HMS BEAGLE

 

 

 

          ►“Natural Selection” vs. Malthusian crisis

►Transmutation theory / EVOLUTION

 

 

 

 

          On the Origin of Species 1859

          The Descent of Man 1871

Social Darwinism

                                                                             Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

                                                                   Genetics

                                                                             Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)