COMMUNISM: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

- materialism


- dialectical materialism


                   Georg W. F. Hegel (1770-1831)

                   Absolute Idea






- class struggle “historical materialism”


1867: Kapital






















          Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)

                   1840: Qu’est-ce que la propriété? “What is property?” it is THEFT

                   1842: Avertissement aux propriétaires “Warning to Proprietors”


          Michael Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814-1876)

“Unchain the popular anarchy in country and town . . . Magnify it till it rolls like a raging avalanche, devouring and destroying.”





London                 2.6 million in 1850 3.9 million in 1870           44% incr

Paris                     1 million                          1.8 million                       76% incr

Vienna                   444 thousand                  834 thousand                  88% incr

St Petersburg         485 thousand                  667 thousand                  38% incr



Sir Edwin Chadwick (1800-1980)

1842: Enquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain




Queen Victoria (1819-1901; r. 1837-1901)





Great Exhibition of 1851: The Crystal Palace









Auguste Comte (1798-1857)


social Darwinism

                    Herbert Spencer 1820-1903





          history: Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886)


          dialectic materialism                 

          Biblical criticism

                   1850s: Nineveh

                             Epic of Gilgamesh

                             2nd millennium B.C.































Max Weber (1864-1920)

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.



Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

Darker/primal aspect of human nature

Dionysian v. Apollonian/Apollinian


Subjectivity of human knowledge


Positivism = secularization


SUPERMAN (Übermensch)

Thus spoke Zarathustra




Ragnarök = Götterdämmerung

Twilight (doom) of the gods


















Have you ever heard of the madman who on a bright morning lighted a lantern and ran to the market-place calling out unceasingly: "I seek God! I seek God!" As there were many people standing about who did not believe in God, he caused a great deal of amusement. Why? is he lost? said one. Has he strayed away like a child? said another. Or does he keep himself hidden? Is he afraid of us? Has he taken a sea voyage? Has he emigrated? - the people cried out laughingly, all in a hubbub. The insane man jumped into their midst and transfixed them with his glances. "Where is God gone?" he called out. "I mean to tell you! We have killed him, you and I! We are all his murderers!” [Gay Science Bk 3, section 125]








God is among us (if we bother to notice): Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)

The world has proclaimed the reign of freedom, especially of late, but what do we see in this freedom of theirs? Nothing but slavery and self-destruction! For the world says: ‘You have desires and so satisfy them, for you have the same rights as the most rich and powerful. Don’t be afraid of satisfying them and even multiply your desires.’ That is the modern doctrine of the world. In that they see freedom. And what follows from this right of multiplication of desires? In the rich, isolation and spiritual suicide; in the poor, envy and murder; for they have been given rights, but have not been shown the means of satisfying their wants.”


The Salvation of Russia comes from the people.  ... Take care of the peasant and guard his heart. Go on educating him quietly. That’s your duty as monks, for the peasant has God in his heart.


[Conversations and Exhortations of Father Zosima, from The Brothers Karamazov, trans. Constance Garnett]




                                                                                                Philokalia (4th-18th centuries)


1866 Crime and Punishment

1869 Idiot

1880 Brothers Karamazov