the Zimmerman telegram






The Romanovs: tercentennial in 1913


          - absolute monarchy

          - city v. countryside

          - infrastructure and industry

                   Ural Mountains


Nicholas II (1868-1918)

(Nikolai Alexandrovich)


Alexandra Fyodorovna (1872-1918)

          (Alix, Prinzessin von Hesse-Darmstadt)


          tsarevich Alexis (1904-1918)


Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905


Revolution of 1905

          Bloody Sunday


Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) (1870-1924)


















                   Bloody Sunday: scene from a movie



















Grigori Yefimovich Novykh Rasputin (1872-1916)

“In order to repent, you must sin first”









Brusilov offensive 1916




1917 International Women’s Day (March 8 New Calendar)

                             March 15: abdication of Nicholas II

Provisional Government: Alexander Kerensky





Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov (Lenin) (1870-1924)

March 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk


          Russian capital moved to Moscow

          (Officially ratified 30 December 1922)


1918-1920 CIVIL WAR

















                   Aurora Cruiser







Professional Revolutionaries

and Shotgun Marxism, 1918-1921


“Hence, our task, the task of Social Democracy, is to combat spontaneity, to divert the working-class movements from this spontaneous, trade-unionist striving to come under the wing of the bourgeoisie and to bring it under the wing of revolutionary Social-Democracy.”

          V. I. Lenin: “What is to be done?”


          - Inevitability of violence

          - Strict discipline

          - Non-democratic leadership

- Transformation of communist ideas of Marx and Engels:



                    ► nationalization

                    ► centralization

► compulsory labor

► abolition of money


Failure of War Communism

NEP: 1921-1928

            1922 currency reintroduced


1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics







































          1924: viewing Lenin’s body                                             Lenin’s Mausoleum, built 1929-30



 The Contenders:




                   16th congress of the Communist Party, 1930













► Freud, Women, and Libido




► Providing for the nation: Population increase, 1890-1910

          Germany: 31%

          Great Britain: 23%

          France: 2.7%

          United States: 46%



          - suffrage

          - equality
























J.J. Rousseau: “When women are what they ought to be, they will keep to what they can understand, and their judgment will be right; but since they have set themselves up as judges of literature, since they have begun to criticize books and to make them with might and main, they are altogether astray.”











1.1 When Adam and Eve were expelled from paradise they made for themselves a tent and spent seven days mourning and lamenting in great sadness.
2.1 But after seven days they began to be hungry and sought food to eat and did not find any.
2.2 Eve told Adam: "Adam, my lord, I am hungry. Go, seek for us something to eat. Perhaps the Lord God will look upon us and have mercy on us and will call us back to the place where we were previously."
3.1 And Adam arose and walked for seven days over all that land but did not find food such as they had in paradise.
3.2 Eve said to Adam: "My lord, would that I might die. Perhaps then the Lord God would bring you back into paradise, for it was because of me that the Lord God grew angry with you. // Do you wish to kill me, that I might die? Perhaps the Lord God will bring you back into paradise, since on account of my action you were expelled from there."
3.3 Adam responded: "Don't say such things Eve lest the Lord God bring upon us some other curse. How could it be that I should raise my hand against my own flesh? Let us arise and seek for ourselves something by which we might live so that we might not perish."
4.1 Walking about, they searched for many days but did not find anything like they had in paradise. They only found what animals eat.
4.2 Adam said to Eve: "The Lord gave these things to animals and beasts to eat. Ours, however, was the angelic food.
4.3 But justly and worthily do we lament before the face of God who made us. Let us perform a great penitence. Perhaps the Lord God will yield and have mercy on us and give us something by which we might live."


            From The Life of Adam and Eve:











Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Émile, 1762:


          The man should be strong and active; the woman should be weak and passive; the one must have both the power and the will; it is enough that the other should offer little resistance. When this principle is admitted, it follows that woman is specially made for man's delight.

            If woman is made to please and to be in subjection to man, she ought to make herself pleasing in his eyes and not provoke him to anger; her strength is in her charms, by their means she should compel him to discover and use his strength. The surest way of arousing this strength is to make it necessary by resistance. Thus pride comes to the help of desire and each exults in the other's victory. This is the origin of attack and defense, of the boldness of one sex and the timidity of the other, and even of the shame and modesty with which nature has armed the weak for the conquest of the strong.


            The mutual duties of the two sexes are not, and cannot be, equally binding on both. Women do wrong to complain of the inequality of man-made laws; this inequality is not of man's making, or at any rate it is not the result of mere prejudice, but of reason. She to whom nature has entrusted the care of the children must hold herself responsible for them to their father.


            Men and women are made for each other, but their mutual dependence differs in degree; man is dependent on woman through his desires; woman is dependent on man through her desires and also through her needs; he could do without her better than she can do without him. She cannot fulfill her purpose in life without his aid, without his goodwill, without his respect; she is dependent on our feelings, on the price we put upon her virtue, and the opinion we have of her charms and her deserts.  Nature herself has decreed that woman, both for herself and her children, should be at the mercy of man's judgment.


          1791: Olympe de Gouges Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen

          1792: Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman