Rapallo Treaty, 1922

 

Women’s suffrage:

1906: Finland

1913: Norway 1913

1915: Denmark and Iceland

1917: Netherlands and Russia

1919: Czechoslovakia, Great Britain

1920: Austria, United States

1925: Hungary

1945: Italy, France

 

 
 


Berlin Art Performance, 1920s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heracleitos (c. 540–c.480 B.C.E.)

Πντα ε κα οδν μνει

 

 

 

1. Disruption of economic relations in Europe

- Austria, Hungary

- Poland v. Germany

- Soviet Russia

 

2. Transformations in agriculture

 

3. Tariffs and protectionism

          - new nation-states

          - empires

- United States:1924: US anti-immigration laws

 

4. The impact of American money

- prior to 1914: US owed the world c. $3.7 billion

- by 1929: the world owed the US over $10 billion

- stagnant investment

 

5. Europe no longer controls global trade

U.S. imports from Europe:

          50% before 1914

          30% in 1920s

Monroe Doctrine (Dec 2, 1823)

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Shirts

 

1919: Fasci di combatimento

 

fasces

lictors

 

October 1922: March on Rome

          Victor Emmanuel III

 

1925: totalitario

 

1929: Vatican agreement

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) “Il Duce”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Baldinelli: The Two Romes                                               Palazzo della civilta Italiana

 

 

 

TOTALITARIANISM AND UTOPIA

 

Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism

Slavoj Žižek

Jose Ortega y Gasset

C. G. Jung

 

 
 

         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany: the Weimar Republic

 

The Fall of the Mark:

          Exchange rates: USD to Mark

 

          1914: 1:4

          1919: 1:9

          1922: 1:500

          1923: 1:5,000,000 (July)

           

 
 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1920 Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion

Crisis and nationalism

          National self-determination

Poland: over1 million Germans (3.9% of total population)

Czechoslovakia: over 3 million (23.4%)

Austria

 

ADOLF HITLER (1889-1945)

1913: Munich

War volunteer       

1919 German Workers’ party

Anton Drexler

1920 NSDAP

(Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)

 

Lebensraum

SA (Sturmabteilung)

 

1923 Beer hall putsch

Mein Kampf

 

NSDAP membership:

1925: 25,000 members

1929: 180,000 members

 

Gauleiter

 

NSDAP presence in the elections:

1928: 2.8 %

1932: 38 % of total vote

 

 
 


 

  George Grosz: Pillars of Society

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1933: Chancellor

          Paul von Hindenburg

 

February: Burning of the Reichstag

March 1933: Enabling Act

Communists

          Concentraton Camps

          Geheime Staatspolizei (GESTAPO)

                   Hermann Göring

 

 August 1934: “Führer”

          Offices of Chancellor and President merged

 

29 June 1934: Night of the Long Knives

          Ernst Röhm

 

PROPAGANDA MACHINE

          Minister of Propaganda: Joseph Goebbels

 

Hitler: “It is part of a great leader's genius to make even widely separated adversaries appear as if they belonged to but one category, because among weakly and undecided characters the recognition of various enemies all too easily marks the beginning of doubt of one's own rightness.”

 

Leni Riefenstahl, (1902-2003)

 

1934 Nuremberg Nazi Rally: Triumph of the Will

1936 Olympic games: Olympia

 

         

 

 

 

ADOLF HITLER (1889-1945)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RACIALLY PURE NEW WORLD

 

 

Adolf Ziegler: The Four Elements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          eugenics

          sterilization

          euthanasia

 

1933 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Progeny

1939 “crimes against the race”

 

JUDENFRAGE

1935 no intermarriage

          Night of November 9-10, 1939: Kristallnacht

 

          20 January 1942: Wannsee Conference: Endlösung