Rapallo Treaty, 1922


Women’s suffrage:

1906: Finland

1913: Norway 1913

1915: Denmark and Iceland

1917: Netherlands and Russia

1919: Czechoslovakia, Great Britain

1920: Austria, United States

1925: Hungary

1945: Italy, France



Berlin Art Performance, 1920s















Heracleitos (c. 540–c.480 B.C.E.)

Πντα ε κα οδν μνει




1. Disruption of economic relations in Europe

- Austria, Hungary

- Poland v. Germany

- Soviet Russia


2. Transformations in agriculture


3. Tariffs and protectionism

          - new nation-states

          - empires

- United States:1924: US anti-immigration laws


4. The impact of American money

- prior to 1914: US owed the world c. $3.7 billion

- by 1929: the world owed the US over $10 billion

- stagnant investment


5. Europe no longer controls global trade

U.S. imports from Europe:

          50% before 1914

          30% in 1920s

Monroe Doctrine (Dec 2, 1823)
































Black Shirts


1919: Fasci di combatimento





October 1922: March on Rome

          Victor Emmanuel III


1925: totalitario


1929: Vatican agreement


















Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) “Il Duce”








          Baldinelli: The Two Romes                                               Palazzo della civilta Italiana






Hannah Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism

Slavoj Žižek

Jose Ortega y Gasset

C. G. Jung

















Germany: the Weimar Republic


The Fall of the Mark:

          Exchange rates: USD to Mark


          1914: 1:4

          1919: 1:9

          1922: 1:500

          1923: 1:5,000,000 (July)
















1920 Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion

Crisis and nationalism

          National self-determination

Poland: over1 million Germans (3.9% of total population)

Czechoslovakia: over 3 million (23.4%)



ADOLF HITLER (1889-1945)

1913: Munich

War volunteer       

1919 German Workers’ party

Anton Drexler

1920 NSDAP

(Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)



SA (Sturmabteilung)


1923 Beer hall putsch

Mein Kampf


NSDAP membership:

1925: 25,000 members

1929: 180,000 members




NSDAP presence in the elections:

1928: 2.8 %

1932: 38 % of total vote




  George Grosz: Pillars of Society




































January 1933: Chancellor

          Paul von Hindenburg


February: Burning of the Reichstag

March 1933: Enabling Act


          Concentraton Camps

          Geheime Staatspolizei (GESTAPO)

                   Hermann Göring


 August 1934: “Führer”

          Offices of Chancellor and President merged


29 June 1934: Night of the Long Knives

          Ernst Röhm



          Minister of Propaganda: Joseph Goebbels


Hitler: “It is part of a great leader's genius to make even widely separated adversaries appear as if they belonged to but one category, because among weakly and undecided characters the recognition of various enemies all too easily marks the beginning of doubt of one's own rightness.”


Leni Riefenstahl, (1902-2003)


1934 Nuremberg Nazi Rally: Triumph of the Will

1936 Olympic games: Olympia






ADOLF HITLER (1889-1945)

















Adolf Ziegler: The Four Elements



















1933 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Progeny

1939 “crimes against the race”



1935 no intermarriage

          Night of November 9-10, 1939: Kristallnacht


          20 January 1942: Wannsee Conference: Endlösung