1935 open repudiation of Versailles


1936 Rhineland





1938, March: Anschluss of Austria

          Kurt von Schuschnigg, Chancellor




          (Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia)

over 3 million Germans (23.4% of total population)



1938, 29 September: Munich Agreement

Germany, Italy, Britain, France


1939: independent Slovakia

          Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
































1939 Berlin Auto Show                                       1937 Autobahn



          The Hindenburg Air Ship







“Act brutally, 80 million people must obtain what is their right ... Genghis Khan has sent millions of women and children into death knowingly and with a light heart ... for the goal to be obtained in the war is not that of reaching certain lines but of physically demolishing the opponent. And so for the present only in the East I have put my death’s head formations in place with the command relentlessly and without compassion to send into death many women and children of Polish origin and language.... Poland will be depopulated and settled with Germans. ... As for the rest ... the fate of Russia will be exactly the same.... After Stalin’s death—he is a very sick man—we will break the Soviet Union. Then there will begin the dawn of the German rule on the earth.”


                   (Klaus Fischer: Nazi Germany [NY, 1995], 439)



“Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death like cattle interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves to our Kultur; otherwise, it is of no interest to me.

          Whether 10,000 Russian women fall down from exhaustion while digging an antitank ditch interests me only in so far as the antitank ditch for Germany is finished.”


(Heinrich Himmler addressing SS officers in Oct.1943)


Munich Agreement: “Peace for our time”


Soviet-German non-aggression treaty

August 23, 1939




























Heinrich Himmler

          SS “Schutzstaffel”

GESTAPO (Geheime Staatspolizei)

SS Einsatzgruppen































Hermann Göring, Hitler’s successor                                       Joseph Goebbels, minister of propaganda


          Albert Speer, chief architect, Inside the Third Reich


Albert Speer: Imperial Chancellery, Berlin






1 September 1939


“Sitzkrieg” until May 10, 1940



          BRITAIN: “operation sea lion”



22 June 1941 Operation Barbarossa





TEHRAN, November 1943

Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt


YALTA, February 1945

spheres of influence