FREDERICK II

(1194-1250 emperor 1220-50)

“stupor mundi”

 

 

Hohenstaufen empire

 

                                                          ghibellines

Waiblingen

                                                          guelphs

Guelph (Welf)

 

                            

 

 

          1231 Liber Augustalis / Constitutions of Melfi

 

                  

          imperialis potestas

          universalis potestas

 

INNOCENT IV (1243-54)

         

Mongols/Tatars 1241

Gog and Magog

          Joachim of Fiore

 

1245 COUNCIL at LYONS

         

 

1247 Parma

 

 

UNIVERSITY of NAPLES (1224)

Salerno

         

 

Louis IX (r. 1226-1270)

 

 

Sainte Chapelle (1243-48)