ALCUIN of York (c.730-804)



†††††††††††††††††† - palace school

†††††††††††††††††† - cathedral schools

†††††††††††††††††† - monastic schools




††††††††† Rabanus Maurus (801-849)

†††††††††††††††††† De naturis rerum (De universo)

††††††††† Einhard (c.770-840)

†††††††††††††††††† Life of Charlemagne



Libri Carolini (790s)

††††††††† ††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† filioque


Epistula de litteris colendis 784-5


Admonitio generalis 789




Rosamond McKitterick

Janet Nelson



†††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††† Louis the Pious(778-840)

††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Benedict of Aniane (745/50-821)


Treaty of Verdun 843


††††††††† East: Louis the German (804-876)

††††††††† Middle Empire Lotharingia: Lothar (795-855)

††††††††† West: Charles the Bald (823-877)






†††††††††††††††††† NORTHMEN

†††††††††††††††††† MAGYARS

†††††††††††††††††† MUSLIMS



Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 793:


Here terrible portents came about in the land of Northumbria, and miserably afflicted the people: these were immense flashes of lightning, and fiery dragons were seen flying in the air, and there immediately followed a great famine, and after that in the same year the raiding of the heathen miserably devastated Godís church in Lindisfarne island by looting and slaughter.


794: Yarrow

795: Iona, Dublin

799: Aquitaine


†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††† 1. early 800s


††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 2. 850 and after

†††††††††††††††††† †††††††††

††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 3. turn of the 10th century


†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††† 4. Final invasions




Chronicle of St. Denis:

††††††††† Rollo (860-932)

††††††††† Charles the Simple (879-829)


The king had at first wished to give to Rollo the province of Flanders, but the Norman rejected it as being too marshy. Rollo refused to kiss the foot of Charles when he received from him the duchy of Normandy. "He who receives such a gift," said the bishops to him, "ought to kiss the foot of the king." "Never," replied he, "will I bend the knee to anyone, or kiss anybody's foot." Nevertheless, impelled by the entreaties of the Franks, he ordered one of his warriors to perform the act in his stead. This man seized the foot of the king and lifted it to his lips, kissing it without bending and so causing the king to tumble over backwards. At that there was a loud burst of laughter and a great commotion in the crowd of onlookers. King Charles, Robert, Duke of the Franks, the counts and magnates, and the bishops and abbots, bound themselves by the oath of the Catholic faith to Rollo, swearing by their lives and their bodies and by the honor of all the kingdom, that he might hold the land and transmit it to his heirs from generation to generation throughout all time to come. When these things had been satisfactorily performed, the king returned in good spirits into his dominion, and Rollo with Duke Robert set out for Rouen.