When the third year after the year 1000 approached, you could see churches being rebuilt almost everywhere, and above all in Italy and Gaul; although most of them had been very well constructed and did not really need this, keen rivalry moved each Christian community to have a more sumptuous church than that of its neighbors. One could have said that the very world was shaking itself stripping off its old raiment and reclothing itself everywhere with a white robe of churches. At that time almost all the churches in the episcopal sees, those of the monasteries dedicated to all kinds of saints, and even the little village chapels, were rebuilt by the faithful to make them more beautiful.


When the whole world was, as we have said, clothed in a white mantle of new churches, a little later in the eighth year after the millennium of the Saviorís Incarnation, the relics of many saints were revealed by various signs where they had long lain hidden. It was as though they had been waiting for a brilliant resurrection and were now by Godís permission revealed to the gaze of the faithful; certainly they brought much comfort to menís minds. . . . Wonderful to relate, [the archbishop of Sens in Gaul] discovered there many ancient and holy things which had long lain hidden, amongst them a fragment of the staff of Moses.


(Radulphus Glaber, Histories, II 1,4.)





Carolingian Dilemma


Louis V (le fainťant) (b. 967-987)





Robert the Strong (d. 866)

Anjou and Blois



††††††††† ††††††††† Hugh Capet (987-996)

††††††††† ††††††††† Robert the Pious (996-1031)







Alfred the Great (871-899)








Rollo 911: Charles the Simple


William of Normandy (1028-1087)


English Throne:

1066: Edward the Confessor


HAROLD Godwin (1020-1066)



††††††††††††††††††††††† Bayeux Tapestry