INVESTITURE CONTROVERSY

 

Gregory VII (1073-85)

Henry IV (1050-1106; king 1054-1106)

 

                    Council of Worms, 1076

 

Canossa

 

RUDOLF (of Rheinfelden) Duke of Swabia

         

Clement III (1084-1100).

 

1122 Concordat of Worms Callixtus II and Henry V (1086-1125)

 

         

 

 

 

 

Washington Irving (1783-1859)

History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828)

         

Lactantius: (240-c.320)

          Cosmas Indicopleustes A Christian Topography (mid-6th century)

 

 

 

 

hexaemeron

Ptolemy (c.100-c.170)

                    Plato’s (427-347) Timaeus

         

         

St Augustine (354-430):

 

          On Christian Doctrine, City of God, Commentary on Genesis.

 

Giordano Bruno (1548 - 1600)

 

 

 

 

 

1. OIKOUMENE

                             ecumenical council”

                             T-O map

                  

                   2. THE WORLD IS ROUND

 

Harrad of Landsberg 12th century: Hortus Deliciarum

         

3. GEOCENTRIC UNIVERSE

 

 

4. THEOCENTRIC UNIVERSE

 

Microcosm/Macrocosm

 

         

5. STRANGE CREATURES AT THE END OF THE WORLD

 

                             mirabilia

 

Pliny the Elder (23-79)

                                       Natural History

         

 

Physiologus 2nd century Greek treatise

 

                             BESTIARIES

 

         

 

Crocodile:

“Crocodile is so called from its saffron or crocus color. It is born in the River Nile, an amphibious animal with four legs: generally twenty cubits in length: armed with an awfulness of teeth and claws. Such is the toughness of its hide that however much a blow of massive stones strikes upon its back, it does not hurt it. It reposes in the water by night, on land by day. Certain fish which have a serrated crest destroy it, ripping up the tender parts of the belly.”

          (T. H. White, trans. The Book of Beasts [New York, 1954], 202)