Manzikert: 1071


Reform popes

          Leo IX

          Gregory VII


Urban II (1035-1099)



Santiago de Compostela

                             Saint James the Apostle: martyred in 44.

                             Tomb “discovered” in 813


          HOLY WAR


          St. Basil (329-379): penance


          St. Augustine (354-430): just war









Clermont, France, November 1095





Fulcher of Chartres 1059-1127


Baldwin of Flanders

Gesta Francorum Jherusalem Peregrinantium.



We read also that if the blind lead the blind, both will fall into the ditch [Matt. 15:14]. But first correct yourselves, in order that, free from blame, you may be able to correct those who are subject to you. If you wish to be the friends of God, gladly do the things which you know will please Him. You must especially let all matters that pertain to the church be controlled by the law of the church. And be careful that simony does not take root among you, lest both those who buy and those who sell [church offices] be beaten with the scourges of the Lord through narrow streets and driven into the place of destruction and confusion. Keep the church and the clergy in all its grades entirely free from the secular power. See that the tithes that belong to God are faithfully paid from all the produce of the land; let them not be sold or withheld. If anyone seizes a bishop let him be treated as an outlaw. If anyone seizes or robs monks, or clergymen, or nuns, or their servants, or pilgrims, or merchants, let him be anathema [that is, cursed].











Although, O sons of God, you have promised more firmly than ever to keep the peace among yourselves and to preserve the rights of the church, there remains still an important work for you to do. Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God. For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire. If you permit them to continue thus for a while with impunity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it.


All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested. O what a disgrace if such a despised and base race, which worships demons, should conquer a people which has the faith of omnipotent God and is made glorious with the name of Christ! With what reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us, profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago.










Alexius Comnenus I (1048-1118)
















          Peter the Hermit (c. 1050-1115)

          Walter the Penniless





Emicho of Leisingen














Nicaea 1097

Antioch: Summer 1098


Seljuqs: sunni

Fatimids: shiite




Jerusalem: July 15 1099




Principality of Antioch (1098-1268)

County of Edessa (1098-1144)

County of Tripoli (lost in 1109; then 1109-1289)

Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187)




Second Crusade: Edessa falls in 1145


          Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)

                   Raymond at Antioch

          Louis VII (1120-1180)


Third Crusade: Jerusalem falls in 1187

          Crusade of the Kings


                   Frederick Barbarossa (1123-1190)

                   Richard I (1157-1199)

                   Philip Augustus (1165-1223)


Fourth Crusade

Zara, Constantinople, 1203-4


Childrens’ Crusade 1212